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2019 - 2022

The past two decades different programs have been implemented by the State Government and the Autonomous Communities to provide digital resources to the pre-school, primary and secondary education institutions, with two main purposes: to improve internet connection at the education centers and bring up to date the digital resources used in the school classroom. All these programs positively affected the educational institutions. However, these programs do not guarantee that teachers have developed their Teachers’ Digital Competence (TDC) sufficiently to be able to incorporate the digital resources into their daily teaching practice and professional training. Neither is there enough evidence of their TDC level nor of the use of digital technologies in their daily teaching practice. In this project we aim to create an “Observatory” as a reference center that studies and defines the current state of Teachers’ Digital Competence (TDC) by employing learning analytics and proposing solutions for in-service and pre-service teachers’ training. The methodology is presented in details in the scientific-technical report and is based on a quantitative and qualitative approach. Instruments are employed to measure Teachers’ Digital Competence both as self-assessed and evaluated. In addition, video analysis instruments are used to further study teachers’ daily practice. The ultimate goal of this project is to improve the integration of digital technologies in teachers’ daily practice so that students receive a quality training in the field of 21st century skills. Our aim is to equip students with fundamental for this century as ICT skills, reading, writing, arithmetic etc. These skills will allow them to live and participate actively in the digital society of 21st century.


Name Institution
Mercè Gisbert Cervera Universitat Rovira i Virgili
Jose Benito Holgado García Universitat Rovira i Virgili
Ramon Fèlix Palau Martin Universitat Rovira i Virgili
José Luis Lázaro Cantabrana Universitat Rovira i Virgili
Juan Francisco Álvarez Herrero Universidad de Alicante
Luís Marqués Molías Universitat Rovira i Virgili
Mar Gutiérrez-Colón Plana Universitat Rovira i Virgili
Janaina Minelli de Olivera Universitat Rovira i Virgili
Vanessa Esteve González Universitat Rovira i Virgili
Mireia Usart Rodriguez Universitat Rovira i Virgili
Xavier Carrera Farran Universitat de Lleida
Carme Grimalt Álvaro Universitat Rovira i Virgili
Jordi Mogas Recalde Universitat Rovira i Virgili
Mònica Sanromà Giménez Universitat Rovira i Virgili
Despoina Schina Universitat Rovira i Virgili
Cristina Valls Bautista Universitat Rovira i Virgili
Virginia Larraz Rada Universitat d'Andorra
Juan Silva Quiroz Centro de Investigación e Innovación en Educación y TIC CIIET de la Universidad de Santiago de Chile
Patricia Henríquez Coronel Universidad Laica Eloy Alfaro de Manabí
Monica Kaechele Obreque Universidad Católica de Temuco

Support programs

Aim of the project is to create an “Observatory” in order to evaluate the Teachers’ Digital Competence (TDC) and provide strategies to favor the development of TDC and the use of digital resources in the primary and secondary school education. The general research question is: Is there a direct correlation between the level of development of Teachers’ Digital Competence (TDC) in pre-school, primary and secondary school education and the way teachers use digital resources in their classrooms? Based on the general research question, the following four general objectives have been formulated together with the respective specific objectives:

  • GO1. Carry out a profound literature review analysis of the indexed publications in WoS y SCOPUS, ERIC and Emerald Insight from 2008 to 2018 related with the TDC and the use of digital resources at educational centers and classrooms.
    • SO.1.1. Analyze the main conclusions of published research from 2007 to 2017 on the development of in-service teachers’ Digital Competence in pre-school, primary and secondary school education.
    • SO.1.2. Analyze the indicators of the digital resources’ teaching use at educational centers and classrooms in pre-school, primary and secondary school education based on the research findings.
  • GO2. Analyze the level of TDC in pre-school, primary and secondary school education, based on a representative sample in Spain.
    • SO. 2.1 Evaluate the level of Teachers’ Digital Competence in pre-school, primary and secondary school education in Spain.
    • SO. 2.2. Analyze the digital resources’ teaching use at educational centers and classrooms.
    • SO.2.3. Analyze the relation between the TDC development and the degree of digital maturity of the center.
  • GO3. Design and develop a permanent e-observatory on TDC based on the analysis of the literature review in pre-school primary and secondary school education.
    • SO3.1. Design an observatory to systematize continuously the data on TDC evaluation.
    • SO3.2. Develop a data analysis strategy based on training analytics techniques.
  • GO4. Analyze the relation between the TDC development profile (by levels and dimensions) in pre-school, primary and secondary school education and typology.
    • SO. 4.1. Analyze the typology and the teaching use of the digital resources based on the dimensions and levels of TDC with the purpose of creating a repository of reference practices.

To carry out this research, the data will be collected within the hybrid paradigm proposed by Strijbos and Fischer (2007) who affirm that a methodology that merges rather than confronts the existing ones, leads to the development of a fusion of quantitative and qualitative research perspectives (Suthers, 2005) that can enrich the final result much more than the limited vision of purely qualitative or quantitative approaches. The research project will be carried out the following three years, in three different phases.

The initial phase of the conceptual and bibliographic review will be carried out through a meta-analysis; according to Abrami et al. (2011), if the sample size is not large enough, a systematic in-depth analysis will be carried out using qualitative techniques instead of statistics to avoid non-significant statistical results. This process, although it will start at the first month of the project, it will not take place in a closely-defined time frame as the theoretical and conceptual foundations must continuously incorporate all the relevant results and references that are being published.

The second phase will follow a Design-Based Research (DBR) methodology (De Benito and Salinas, 2016) to design and develop a permanent observatory, based on the systematic analysis of the level of Teachers’ Digital Competence at pre-school, primary and secondary education. In our study, quantitative data will be first obtained by using a quasi-experimental research design through COMDID and COMDID-A to identify the characteristics and variables involved and the activity records of the sample. The qualitative data that will be collected from the classroom observation through a video analysis tool.

Finally, our aim is to create a repository of reference practices that teachers employ in their teaching. To do so, based on the Theory of Activity paradigm (Karasavvidis, 2009) and on the Learning Analytics, we are going to analyze the relation between Teachers’ Digital Competence development profile and the typology of teaching digital resources.


  • Gisbert Cervera, M., & Lázaro-Cantabrana, J.L. (2020). De las aulas a los espacios globales para el aprendizaje. Barcelona: Octaedro, S.L.


  • Mogas, J., Palau, R., Lorenzo, N., & Gallon, R. (2020). Developments for Smart Classrooms: Schools Perspective and Needs. International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning, 12(4), 34-50. http://doi.org/10.4018/IJMBL.2020100103
  • Ralda, A. & Lázaro-Cantabrana, J.L. (2020). La evaluación de actividades competenciales mediante un sistema  de videoanálisis: educación no formal con Ninus. Aloma, Revista de Psicologia, Ciències de l’Educació i de l’Esport, 38 (2), 59-68. https://bit.ly/3lgc7GF
  • Schina, D., Esteve-González, V., Usart, M., Lázaro-Cantabrana, J. L., & Gisbert, M. (2020). The Integration of Sustainable Development Goals in Educational Robotics: A Teacher Education Experience. Sustainability12(23), 10085. https://doi.org/10.3390/su122310085
  • Sanromà-Giménez, M., Lázaro Cantabrana, J. L., Usart Rodríguez, M., & Gisbert-Cervera, M. (2021). Design and Validation of an Assessment Tool for Educational Mobile Applications Used with Autistic Learners. Journal of New Approaches in Educational Research, 10(1). https://doi.org/10.7821/naer.2021.1.574
  • Paz-Saavedra, L.E., Gisbert Cervera, M., & Usart-Rodríguez, M. (2022). Competencia digital docente, actitud y uso de tecnologías digitales por parte de profesores universitarios (Teacher digital competenceattitude and use of digital technologies by university professors)Pixel-Bit. Revista de Medios y Educación, 63, 93-130. https://doi.org/10.12795/pixelbit.91652
  • Gisbert-Cervera,M., Usart,M., & Lázaro-Cantabrana,J.L. (2022). Training pre-service teachers to enhanced digital education. European Journal of Teacher Education. https://doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2022.2098713
  • Marimon-Martí,M., Romeu-Fontanillas,T., Ojando-Pons,E., & Esteve-González,V. (2022). Competencia Digital Docente: autopercepción en estudiantes de educación[Teacher Digital Competence: self-perception in education students]. Pixel-Bit. Revista de Medios y Educación, 65, 275-303. https://doi.org/10.12795/pixelbit.93208
  • Verdú-Pina, M., Lázaro-Cantabrana, J. L., Grimalt-Álvaro, C. & Usart, M. (2023). El concepto de competencia digital docente: revisión de la literatura. Revista Electrónica de Investigación Educativa, 25, e11, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.24320/redie.2023.25.e11.4586
  • Verdú-Pina, M., Usart, M., Grimalt-Álvaro, C. & Ortega-Torres, E. (2023). Students' and teachers' digital competence in a Valencian network of cooperative schools. Revista Aloma, 41(1), 71-82. https://doi.org/10.51698/aloma.2023.41.1.71-82

Book chapter

Conference papers

  • Grimalt-Álvaro, C., Usart, M., & Esteve-González, V. (4 – 11 de junio de 2020). La Competencia Digital Docente desde una perspectiva de género. Estudio de caso en el máster interuniversitario de tecnología educativa. XVIII Jornadas de Redes de Investigación en Docencia Universitaria (REDES 2020) & IV Workshop Internacional de Innovación en Enseñanza Superior y TIC (INNOVAESTIC 2020). Universitat d’Alacant (UA), País Valencià.
  • Verdú-Pina, M., Usart, M., y Grimalt-Álvaro, C. (10-16 de junio de 2021). Diseño y validación de un cuestionario de usos de las tecnologías digitales para docentes de educación infantil, primaria y secundaria. [Presentación oral]. IV Workshop Internacional de Innovación en Enseñanza Superior y TIC. (INNOVAESTIC 2021). Universitat d’Alacant (UA), País Valencià.